If you are a new writer, you might find it worthwhile to browse through some of these lists before you send off a manuscript. The checklists are based on some of the handouts that I’ve given out over the years at historical novel workshops but they include points that are hopefully useful to writers in any genre. Some points may be repeated under more than one heading. These lists are just scratching the surface of things you need to think about, but I hope they are helpful to you and don't be dispirited, you can do it!
1. A toe in the water
Perfecting the first chapter is your main chance to hook the editor's interest but ask yourself the following questions:
- Is this the absolutely perfect point to start your story? Often, books begin with a sudden change in the main character's fortunes or something that interests the editor/reader straight away. Have a look at books by some of your favourite authors and see how they've tackled this.
- Does your story need a prologue? If there is an early incident years before that vitally impinges on your story but is inappropriate for an opening chapter, you might try putting it in a prologue.
- Do you have too much detail in the early pages? Sometimes it's tempting to put in too much 'backstory' in the first chapter – in other words, too much about your character's past. Are you making that mistake? Could some of it be gradually woven in later?
- Does the first sentence snare the attention?
- Is it clear what is happening and when this story is taking place?
- Has the setting been clearly established?
- By the end of the first sentence, do you want to read on?
- By the end of the first para, do you want to read on?
- By the end of the first page, do you want to read on?
- Is it easy for the reader to recognise the main character?
- By page three, have you established enough empathy so that your reader will care deeply what happens to your main character?
- Have you ended the first chapter (and/or prologue) with a hook?
Try reading the first chapter out loud to yourself. It's amazing how much you can pick up – repetition, flat and boring bits, sentences where the meaning isn't quite clear.
And, OK, assuming now you are satisfied with the first chapter, can you sustain the plot for the mss length the publisher requires?
2. The bigger picture
Whether you have finished a manuscript or are just getting started, you need to think about whether there's a market for your manuscript.
- What sort of story are you planning to write? Does it fit into a genre/subgenre?
- What sort of reader are you aiming at?
- Have you any publisher in mind and, if so, do they publish the sort of book you are writing?
- Is your manuscript going to be the correct length for this publishing house?
- Can you sum up the concept in an exciting phrase?
- Can you create an exciting blurb for your story in about three lines?
- Have you requested a style sheet before completing your manuscript? Some publishers prefer you do this, and it will help you polish up your manuscript before submission.
- Does this publisher use double or single quote marks? Look at the books they publish if they don't have a style sheet to send you.
- What size paragraph indent does this publisher require? Ah, and don't leave line spaces between paragraphs. Remember it's a book not a report.
- If you are submitting to the US market, have you set your spelling checker to American spelling?
- Is your story ‘your voice’ or are you subconsciously copying an author you like?
- If you are writing a historical or creating another world, is there enough detail to make this ‘other world’ intriguing for the reader?
- Have you a subplot/minor characters to help provide depth?
- Have you consider using a theme and imagery to enrich your story? (You may have subconsciously done this already.)
- Does each scene move the story on?
- Does your story have peaks and valleys?
- Is the ending satisfactory? US readers, for instance, tend to like to have the loose ends tied up.
3. Character checklist
- If you are writing a historical novel, have you named your characters correctly for the era?
- Is it easy to work out who is who in your narrative, especially when the action is fast and furious?
- Are there any characters whose names can be confused?
- Are they wearing clothing appropriate to status, personality, colouring?
- Have you thought about their faults as well as their virtues?
- Think about how you can increase the pressure on your hero and heroine. As he/she makes a decision, does it lead to different problems for him/her?
- Do the decisions the main characters take show how they are changing?
- Are you sure the reader can empathise with the main character and approve of his/her behaviour?
- Are characters well-rounded and consistent in their behaviour?
- Are their motives for acting as they do credible and acceptable?
- Are minor characters drawn/described sufficiently, according to their importance in story?
- Is the villain (romance/thriller) a sufficient challenge for the hero?
4. Romance checklist
- Do you have a main character with whom the reader can empathise?
- Do you have motional tension? When and will they finally get together?
- Do you have sparky dialogue?
- Are you writing single title or category romance? If you want to include more subplot, background and develop minor characters, you might be more comfortable with the former.
- If you are writing category romance, are your hero and heroine centre stage nearly all the time?
- Can your reader, if female, identify with heroine and approve of her actions?
- Is the hero acceptable to the reader even if he may not be at first to the heroine?
- What internal or external obstacles cause your lovers to resist each other?
- Is the conflict between hero and heroine credible and sustained? In other words, if the conflict is based on a flimsy misunderstanding, please think again.
- Have you shown why they are increasingly attracted to each other?
- What do lovers see in each other that they need or lack in themselves?
5. Viewpoint (POV) checklist
- Do you prefer to write in the first person, as though you are in a character's shoes (remember this will limit your viewpoint) or would you rather write in the third person (i.e. he or she)? The latter too has different depths. This is simplifying things but imagine you are in a theatre foyer waiting to go into a performance. Do you want to describe what is happening as though you are on an upstairs balcony watching everyone congregate, or are you down below, rubbing shoulders, getting into what your hero or heroine is thinking? Those of you who have seen the film Russian Ark will understand what I mean. The camera is right in the ballroom moving through the dancers and the people standing talking.
- If using more than one viewpoint, is it always clear to reader whose viewpoint is being described?
- If your main interest is a historical character like Joan of Arc but you write about events from a fictional character's viewpoint, make sure you let that character live their own life. Remember that the fictional character is actually the main character in the readers' eyes and they will want to know what is happening to him/her.
- Have you avoided going into the viewpoint of people who are insignificant in the story (e.g. the butler or the upstairs maid)? This is a very common mistake.
- Have you checked there are no POV changes in mid-paragraph?
- Have you remembered that men and women think differently?
- Don't forget that you can't say something like 'his expression was enigmatic', if you are entering into his thoughts. He can't see what his face looks like unless he catches sight of himself in the mirror. You could say 'he tried for an enigmatic expression'.
6. Use of language checklist (especially historicals)
- Have you used any words whose meaning is not clear within your text?
- Have you checked all spellings of unusual words? Why not keep a list of the correct spelling or key it into your spelling checker and that saves a lot of time for the copy editor.
- Have you made sure you are not using any anachronisms?
- Make sure you are not using words that have acquired a different meaning?
- Have you checked that all forms of address and rank are accurate? Please don't describe Sir Arthur Sadler as Sir Sadler.
- Is the imagery appropriate for era and tone of novel?
- Have you read page aloud to see if text flows?
7. Synopsis checklist
- Is your synopsis the appropriate length? Check with the publisher's requirements if you are not sure.
- Is there a strong opening and a hook to keep the editor reading on?
- Does text flow?
- Have you remembered to write it in the present tense?
- Have you checked for typos, repetition, poor spacing etc?
- Does it reflect your style and skills? eg if you use humour, does it show here?
- Are you demonstrating not just plot but what motivates your main character and how he/she changes and grows?
- Have you made era and setting clear?
- Have you created empathy for your main character?
- Have you shown their motivations/objectives/strengths/weaknesses?
- Are conflict(s) clear and satisfactorily resolved?
- Are all crises or watersheds covered?
- Are there any characters whose names can be confused?
- Are minor characters/loose ends, essential to plot, dealt with?
- Have you wasted any valuable space on irrelevant info?
- Do you need all those adjectives?
- Have you read the synopsis aloud?
- Finally, if you were the editor reading this, would you want to read the entire manuscript? In other words, be honest, would ultra-busy you ask to see the full mss if you were in her/his shoes?
8. Query letter checklist
- Is your query letter lively and enticing without being too cute or over the top?
- Can you fit all you want to say into a one-page letter?
- Can you give your story a high concept (a phrase that sums up the plot in an exciting way)?
- Alternatively, can you write a mouth-watering description of your book in three lines?
- What can you tell the editor that might help him/her fight for your story’s acceptance through all the publishing meetings? For instance:
- Have you a special area of knowledge relevant to story?
- Have you had anything published in a different or related field?
- Have you been interviewed on the radio? Even if it's about nothing to do with writing!
- Have you done any public speaking? You might have been chairperson on a school committee or given presentations to colleagues as part of your work.
- Would you be happy to give talks and help promote your book?
- Do you belong to any writers’ societies/groups or to any organisation that might be willing to publicise your book through their newsletters?
You can't fit all that onto one page? No, but you could attach a bullet point single sheet to the query letter so that the editor can take all that information on board in a glance.
9. Final Draft Checklist
- Have you eliminated those boring early chapters that helped you get your characters right but lacked pace and thrill?
- Is your book lively, believable and a page-turner?
- Is the story satisfying, especially the ending?
- Have you created likable, well drawn characters that will keep reader with them?
- Are you meeting your reader’s expectations for this type of genre?
- Have you requested and observed publisher’s guidelines?
- Have you analysed the layout in desired publisher’s existing books, e.g. paragraph indents, quote marks?
- Do you have appropriate headers, footers and page numbering?
- Do you understand the correct use of apostrophe?
- Are you satisfied you understand how to punctuate dialogue? Check a novel by a well-known author, if you don't.
- Have you run text through a spelling and spacing check?
- Have you checked things that slip through spelling check like ‘there’ and ‘their’?
- Does your manuscript presentation show that you have an eye for accuracy?
- Have you demonstrated you are capable of self-editing? In other words, that you have read your typescript through and corrected the errors?
- Is your presentation perfect?
© Isolde Martyn 2006
If you read a lot of history, it's very jarring to find a fictional character in a historical novel given a name that is utterly inappropriate for the time and place, for instance, a German name for a medieval English peasant, or an English nobleman's title derived from an occupation instead of a place name. John, Duke of Marlbourough is correct, but a fictional name like Thomas, Duke of Cooper is wrong. Cooper is a surname derived from barrel-making. Mind, even the placename rule can have pitfalls. Thomas, Duke of Stow-in-the-Wold doesn't have the right ring to it either so just be careful.
There are many wonderful, authentic given names, both common and unusual, to choose from when you are naming your characters. Norman names like William, Simon, Stephen, Richard, Robert, John and Henry have stayed with us down the ages, especially as they were the names of kings and noblemen. Naming your child after a strong and powerful ruler was very popular. Elizabeth, Isabelle, Anne and Margaret were extremely common in the fifteenth century and sixteenth century – all names of queens.
Biblical names like Simon and Peter have rarely gone out of fashion but you still have to be careful. I have only found one example of David being used in England in the Middle Ages. It was considered either a Jewish or a Welsh name – Dafydd. James is not often met with in England before King James I's reign although there was a Sir James Tyrell in the time of King Richard III and plenty, of course, in Scotland. The name Biblical name Phillip probably came into its own in Tudor England when Mary Tudor married Phillip of Spain but it was very popular across in France all through the Middle Ages.
When you do your research, why not make a list of the names you come across in your reading? A swift way of doing this might be to look through the indexes. The biographies of Eleanor of Aquitaine by Alison Weir and Marion Meade will give you an excellent list of noble and ecclesiastical names for Twelth Century characters. For fourteenth century men, a good source is the index to A Distant Mirror by Dorothy Tuchmann.
Books such as P.J.P. Goldberg's Women in England c.1275-1525, Margaret Wade Labarge's Women in Medieval Life and Henrietta Leyser's Medieval Women: A Social History of Women in England 450–1500 contain some fascinating names. Not that I'd want to use Eormengota or Bugga (both abbesses) but Nelle or Letice (1301) might be useful for a maidservant. Perrete (15thC) , Perrin (1425), Aleyse (14thC), Sabine (13thC Londoner) or Laurette (13thC) might be interesting for a heroine.
An earlier version of this list was handed out as part of my workshop Breathing Life into History, presented at the New York Conference of RWA in July 2003.
This is a very rough guide. The appearance or interpretation of some fabrics has varied over the centuries, e.g. fustian. Others, such as muslin, came in different varieties. Many fabrics were named after the place where they were first made. Names were also spelt in a variety of ways. Where a date is given, it refers to an early mention of that fabric being used in England.
Wool, the backbone of English prosperity in the Middle Ages, is not mentioned in the list as such, but many of the fabrics mentioned below were the result of experiments in combining wool with other natural fibres.
The information is garnered from:
- The Coronation of Richard III by A.F. Sutton and P.W. Hammond (London: 1983)
- Oxford English Dictionary
- The Lisle Letters, ed. Muriel St Clare Byrne (London: Secker & Warburg, 1983)
- A Dictionary of English Costume by C. Willett Cunnington, Phyllis Cunnington and Charles Beard (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1960)
- a visit to the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, UK
Attaby (later tabby) .. buttons, use of, 1340 .. cambric 1350 .. camelhair .. cameline 1400 .. candlewick .. flax .. fustian (coarse) 1200 .. gauze 1261 .. lawn .. linen .. perse .. ray .. satin .. silk 880 .. sparkles 1330 .. taffeta 1373 .. tissue 1366 .. twill 1329 .. velvet 1320
Baldekin .. branched velvet .. blanket .. broadcloth .. buckskin gloves .. buckram .. busk .. camlet .. canvas .. cendal .. cered cloth (waterproofed) .. champagne .. damask (italian) 1430 .. doeskin leather 1457 .. felt .. flannel .. frieze .. fustian .. holland .. imperial cloth .. kendal .. knitting .. mechlin (black cloth) .. muslin .. musterdevillers .. rennes .. russet .. samite .. sarsenet .. scarlet (wool) .. serge .. tartaryn .. ticking .. tissue .. watchet .. worsted
Baize .. bomabasine 1572 .. brocade .. calico (term from india) .. cypress .. flannel .. frisado .. jean .. lace (bobbin) .. linsey-woolsey .. lutestring (taffeta) 1661 .. manchester cottons .. net .. plush .. sackcloth .. spangles 1548 .. tinsel .. whalebone in garments
Atlas .. bengal .. bomabazine .. burlap .. chintz (term from india) .. cottons, indian .. crepe .. denim .. dimity .. holland linen .. knotting .. mohair .. morocco leather
Bombazet .. buckskin leather breeches .. chenille .. corduroy 1774 .. doeskin fabric 1710 .. genoa velvet .. gingham .. lutestring (silken) .. mechlin lace .. nankeen .. pompadour .. quilting .. seersucker (term from india) .. swansdown .. stockingnette .. tulle .. by 1800, printed cottons were being manufactured in Britain
Alpaca .. angora .. bedford cord .. brocatelle .. byzantine .. cashmere .. chambray 1814 clementine .. chiffon .. crepe de chine .. elastic (india rubber) .. flannelette 1876 .. duck .. gabardine 1879 .. gingham (chequered) .. imperial velvet .. jersey .. kersey .. lustre .. madras (muslin) .. merino (early 19th) .. mirror velvet .. mousselaine .. muscovite .. organdy .. peau de soie .. pekin .. percale .. petersham ribbon 1848 .. polkadot pattern, use of .. radzimir 1849 .. satteen 1838 .. shantung .. tarlatan .. tricot .. tweed .. voile
How long is a piece of string? So many excellent history books abound, not to mention journal articles. Here are a few that i've found really helpful. There is an excellent series of biographies of English monarchs published by Methuen and Thames & Hudson. Sutton Publishing (Stroud, Gloucs.,UK) publishes many UK local histories and medieval topics. The journals of the Richard III and Jane Austen Societies contain some excellent source material.
General British and European history
(with more emphasis on medieval since that is my forté)
Anderson, Bonnie S. and Zinsser, Judith P., A History of Their Own (Penguin, 1988)
Baugh, Albert C., A History of the English Language (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1957 ed)
Bayard, Tanya, transl and ed., A Medieval Home Companion (Harper Perennial, 1991)
Bradfield, N., Historical Costumes of England 1066–1956 (Harrap, 1959)
Brohaugh, William, English through the Ages (Ohio: Writer’s Digest, Books, 1998)
Danziger, Danny and Gillingham, John, 1215: The Year of Magna Carta (Coronet, 2003)
Durant, David N., Where Queen Elizabeth Slept and What the Butler Saw (New York: St Martins Press, 1997)
Evans, Joan, A History of Jewellery 1100–1870 (New York: Dover Publications Inc, 1970 ed)
Finlay, Victoria, Colour (Hodder & Stoughton, 2002)
Gies, Frances & Joseph, Cathedral, Forge and Waterwheel (HarperPerennial ed, 1995)
Goldberg, P.J.P. ed and transl., Women in England c.1275–1525 (Manchester University Press, 1995)
Lacey, Robert and Danziger, Danny, The Year 1000 (Little Brown and Company, 1999)
Landsberg, Sylvia, The Medieval Garden (British Museum Press, no date)
Muir, Richard, The English Village (Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1983 ed)
Norman Vesey, Arms and Armour (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1964)
Past Times, Lock, Stock and Barrel (Oxford 1998) provides origins of many phrases
Platt, Colin, The Castle in Medieval England and Wales (London: Chancellor Press, 1995 ed)
Rackham, Oliver, The History of the Countryside (London: J.M. Dent, 1993 ed)
Reaney, P.H., A Dictionary of English Surnames (OUP, 1997 ed)
Scholfield, John, Medieval London Houses, Yale University Press, 1995)
Stow, John, The Survey of London (Everyman Library)
Wade, Margaret Labarge, Medieval Travellers (Phoenix 1982)
Women in Medieval Life (Penguin, 1986)
Wood, Margaret, The English Medieval House (London: Bracken Books, 1983)
Tannahill, Reay, Sex in History (London: Little Brown & Co, Abacus ed., 1989)
Tannahill, Reay, Food in History (London, 1988)
Tuchman, B., A Distant Mirror (Macmillan Papermac, 1995 ed), a wonderful look at the world of the fourteenth century
Burney, Frances, Journals and Letters (Penguin, 2001)
Gadd. David, Georgian Summer: Bath in the Eighteenth Century (Wiltshire: Moonraker Press 1997)
Creevey, T., Thomas Creevey’s Papers, 1793–1838, ed. John Gore (Penguin, 1985)
Kloester, Jennifer, Georgette Heyer's Regency World (Arrow, 2005)
Grambs, David, The Describer's Dictionary ISBN0-393-31265-8.
Jackson, Carole, Colour Me Beautiful (Australia: Little Hills Press, 1985)
A browse along the Australian history reference shelves in any Australian state reference library is an excellent start for researching novels with Australian content. State libraries house archives containing personal letters and papers, old newspapers and magazines, brochures, local histories etc, whereas state archives offices hold all colonial official records: lists of convicts, musters, shipping lists etc. University libraries contain a fabulous range of Australian books and access is free, but unless you are a student or staff member, an annual borrowing card is expensive. There are a lot of records online now that can be accessed through university and state libraries.
The quality of local history books vary. A good bibliography usually indicates a professional approach, and if the book has been put out by a reputable publisher, this implies the text has had a thorough edit. Here are some Australian starters:
- Burke, K., Gold and Silver: Photographs of Australian Goldfields (Penguin Books)
- Australians: A Historical Library (Fairfax, Syme and Weldon Associates, 1987) — this reference set of ten volumes, compiled for the Bicentenary, includes a historical atlas, a gazetteer: Events and Places, a bibliography of local histories, slice histories and a dictionary of Australian history
Using the Internet
To be able to read so many old printed texts on line for free is a fabulous resource, and there are some brilliant image and map collections available. My favourite website is definitely British History Online. It contains the Victoria County Histories and some fantastic primary sources – thank you to all those hardworking people who copied all those mss for users worldwide. The UK's National Archives now have many wills online and it is marvellous to be able to download a historical person's will in seconds for just a modest fee. These sort of records are often useful for social details as they list people's most valued possessions such as their best clothes, furniture and tableware.